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If you have learnt numbers in Chinese language, you will master numbers in Japanese language faster. The reason is that both languages use the same concepts: counting units change every four digits and the use of counters (quantifiers in Chinese language). The difference is the pronunciation. There is irregular pronunciation in Japanese language.
Let’s go to numbers starting from one hundred.
百 (ひゃく) — 100
千 (せん) — 1000
万 (まん) — 10000
Counting units change every four digits
10,000 is ten thousand in Western countries, but Japanese language has a name for the unit: 万. Thus, 100,000 is one hundred thousand in Western countries, but it is 十万 (ten 万) in Japanese language.
The use of counters
English language: two books
Chinese language: 两本书
Japanese language: 二冊本, where 二 = 2, 冊 = the counter for book and 本 = book
Just like Chinese language, you need to keep learning so that you can get yourself familiar with the use of counters.
1. Do revision.
2. Keep learning.
As mentioned in Japanese Journey 六, there are two types of adjectives in Japanese language: い-adjective and な-adjective. The example in adjective conjugation, 高い, is an い-adjective.
All い-adjectives end with い. Some of the “famous” い-adjectives that you may hear from Japanese drama series are 可愛い (cute)、優しい (gentle)、美味しい (delicious) and 素晴らしい (fabulous).
To describe a noun, you just need to add the noun after the い-adjective, for examples, 可愛い子供、優しい人、美味しい寿司。
Although some な-adjectives end with い, you add な in between the adjective and the noun to describe the noun. Are な-adjectives confusing? No. From the examples below, although the pronunciation ends with い, they are kanji that does not end with い alone like い-adjectives. It takes a lot of learning to differentiate な-adjectives from い-adjectives, but it is not confusing.
Examples of な-adjective and its usage:
(a) 綺麗 (きれい) — 綺麗な女の子
(b) 有名 (ゆうめい) — 有名な人
Asking questions in Japanese is easy. Once you have learnt sufficient grammar and vocabulary to form sentences, you just need to add か (ka) at the end of the sentence to make it a question sentence. Let’s look at two examples:
(a) 高いですか？— Is it expensive?
(b) あなたは行きますか？— Are you going?
1. Start a diary to write in the language that you are learning. The more you use the language in your daily life, the more your brain can retain what you have learnt.
English language learners are familiar with conjugation. For example, eat, eats, ate and eating are used differently depending on the person and the tense.
Japanese language has three types of conjugation: noun conjugation, adjective predicate and verb predicate conjugation. There are some notes on my book which I have written down. Thus, I have looked up some extra information on conjugation and added more information into the book.
Below is the summary of what I have learnt. The conjugation is highlighted in bold.
先生 (せんせい) = teacher
1. 私は先生です。— I am a teacher.
2. 私は先生じゃないです。— I am not a teacher.
3. 私は先生でした。— I was a teacher.
4. 私は先生じゃなかったです。— I was not a teacher.
There are two types of adjectives in Japanese language: イ-adjective and ナ-adjective.
高い (たかい) = expensive
1. 高いです。— It is expensive
2. 高くないです。— It is not expensive.
3. 高かったです。— It was expensive.
4. 高くなかったです。— It was not expensive.
行き (いき) = go
1. あなたは行きます。— You go.
2. あなたは行きません。— You do not go.
3. あなたは行きました。— You went.
4. あなたは行きませんでした。— You did not go.
1. Find more information on a topic and write down the information. It helps to reinforce the learning.
2. If possible, read in the language that you are learning.
3. New Japanese words: Teacher — 先生
Expensive — 高い
Go — 行き